There are a few things to learn about Asphalt Shingles
An asphalt shingle is a type of wall or roof shingle that uses asphalt for waterproofing. It is one of the most widely used roofing covers in North America because it has a relatively inexpensive up-front cost and is fairly simple to install.
Two types of base materials are used to make asphalt shingles, organic and fiberglass. Both are made in a similar manner, with an asphalt-saturated base covered on one or both sides with asphalt or modified-asphalt, the exposed surface impregnated with slate, schist, quartz, vitrified brick, stone, or ceramic granules, and the under-side treated with sand, talc or mica to prevent shingles from sticking to one-another before use.
The top surface granules block ultra-violet light, which causes the shingles to deteriorate, provides some physical protection of the asphalt core, and provides color – lighter shades preferred for their heat reflectivity in sunny climates, darker in cooler ones for their absorption. Some shingles have copper or other biocides added to the surface to help prevent algae growth. Self-sealing strips are standard on the underside of shingles to provide resistance to lifting in high winds.
Organic shingles are made with a base mat of organic materials such as waste paper, cellulose, wood fiber, or other materials. This is saturated with asphalt to make it waterproof, then a top coating of adhesive asphalt is applied, covered with solid granules. They are also less brittle than fiberglass shingles in cold weather.
Fiberglass reinforcement was devised as the replacement for asbestos in organic mat shingles. Fiberglass shingles have a base layer of glass fiber reinforcing mat made from wet, random-laid glass fibers bonded with urea-formaldehyde resin. The mat is then coated with asphalt containing mineral fillers to make it waterproof. Such shingles resist fire better than those with organic/paper mats.
Fiberglass shingles gradually began to replace organic felt shingles, and by 1982 overtook them in use. Widespread hurricane damage in Florida during the 1990s prompted the industry to adhere to a 1700-gram tear value on finished asphalt shingles.
Architectural or 3-Tab
Asphalt Shingles come in two standard design options: Architectural (also known as Dimensional) Shingles, and 3-Tab Shingles. 3-Tab are essentially flat simple shingles with a uniform shape and size. They use less material and are thinner than Architectural Shingles, and are therefore lighter and lower cost for both the material and the installation. They also do not last as long or offer Manufacturer’s Warranties as long as good architectural asphalt shingles. 3-Tab are still the most commonly installed. However, they are declining in popularity in favor of the architectural style. Dimensional, or architectural shingles are thicker and stronger, vary in shape and size, and offer more aesthetic appeal; casting more distinct, random shadow lines better mimics the appearance of traditional roofing materials such as wood shake shingles. The result is a more natural, traditional look. While more expensive to install, they come with longer manufacturer’s warranties, sometimes up to 50 Years – typically prorated, as virtually all asphalt shingle roofs are replaced before such an expiration could be reached. While 3-tab shingles typically need to be replaced after 15–18 years, Dimensional typically last 24–30 years.